University of Minnesota
Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies


Women and The Holocaust

  • Allen, Ann Taylor. "The Holocaust and the Modernization of Gender: A
      Historiographical Essay. "  Central European History   30.3 (1997): 349-364.
  • Baer, Elizabeth R. and Goldenberg, MyrnaExperience and Expression: Women,
    The Nazis, and the Holocaust
    .  Detroit: Wayne State UP, 2003.
  • Baskin Judith. Women of the Word: Jewish Women and Jewish Writing Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1996.
  • Baumel, Judith.
    • Double Jeopardy: Gender and the Holocaust. Portland: Vallentine Mitchell, 1998.
    • "Social Interaction among Jewish Women in Crisis during the Holocaust:' Gender and History 7.1 (1995): 64-84.
  • Bendremer, Jutta. Women Surviving the Holocaust: in Spite of the Horror Lewiston: E. Mellen Press, 1997.
  • Brenner, Rachel. Writing as Resistance: Four Women Confronting the Holocaust. University Park: Penn State UP, 1997.
  • Bridenthal, Renate. Atina Grossmann and Marion Kaplan, eds. When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984.
  • Cole, Diana. "A Sudden Spate of Women's Holocaust Memoirs." Lilith 18.1 (1993): 2628.
  • Cosner, Sharon and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: a Biographical Dictionary New York: Greenwood Press, 1998.
  • DeCosta, Denise. Anne Frank and Etty Hillesum: Inscribing Spirituality and Sexuality.  New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1998.
  • De Silva, Cara. In Memory's Kitchen: A Legacy from the Women of Terezin. New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 1996.
  • Distel, BarbaraFrauen im Holocaust.  Gerlingen: Bleicher Verlag, 2001.
  • Dworkin, Andrea. "The Unremembered: Searching for Women at the Holocaust Memorial Museum." Ms. (Nov/Dec, 1994): 5258.
  • Ezrahi, Sidra. By Words Alone: The Holocaust in Literature Chicago: University of Chicago P, 1980.
  • Fine, Ellen S. "Women Writers and the Holocaust: Strategies for Survival." Reflections of the Holocaust in Art and Literature Ed. Randolph L Braham . New York: Columbia UP, 1990.
  • Felstiner, Mary Lowenthal. "Taking Her Life/History: the Autobiography of Charlotte Salomon."  Life/Lines: Theorizing Women's Autobiography.  Ed. Bella Brodski and Celeste Schenek.  Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1998.
    • To Paint Her Life: Charlotte Salomon in the Nazi Era.  New York: HarperPerennial, 1995.
  • Fishman, Ellen. "Why Women are Writing Holocaust Memoirs Now" Lillith 15.2 (1990): 67,29.
  • Frederiksen, Elke P. and Wallach, MarthaFacing Fascism and Confronting the Past:
    German Women Writers from Weimar to the Present
    .  Albany: SUNY UP, 2000.
  • Fuchs, Esther.  ed. Women and the Holocaust: Narrative and Representation. Lanham: University Press of America, 1999.
  • Goldenberg, Myrna.
    • "Different Horrors, Same Hell: Women Remembering the Holocaust." Thinking the Unthinkable: Meanings of the Holocaust Ed. Roger S. Gottlieb. Nahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1990.
    • "Lessons Learned from Gentle Heroism: Women's Holocaust Narratives. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 548 (Nov 1996): 7893.
    • "Testimony, Narrative, and Nightmare. The Experiences of Jewish Women in the Holocaust." Active Voices: Women in Jewish Culture. Ed. Maurice Sacks. Urbana: University of Illinois P, 1995.
    • 'From a World Beyond': Women in the Holocaust." Feminist Studies. 22. 3 (Fall, 1996): 667-687.
    • " Choices, Risks, and Conscience," Belles Lettres 10 (Winter 199394):4245.
  • Gurewitsch, Brana, ed. Mothers, Sisters, Resisters: Oral Histories of Women Who Survived the Holocaust Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1998.
  • Halio, Jay and Ben Siegel, eds. Daughters of Valor: Contemporary Jewish American Women Writers Newark: University of Delaware P, 1997.
  • Heineman, Elizabeth. "The Hour of the Woman: memories of Germany's 'Crisis Years'
    and West German National Identity." American Historical Review 101 (1996):
    • What Difference Does a Husband Make? Women and Marital
      Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany.
        Berkeley: University of California Press,
  • Heineman, Marlene. Gender and Destiny: Women Writers and the Holocaust New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.
  • Higgonet, Margaret et al, eds. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars New Haven: Yale UP, 1987.
  • Hirsch, MarianneFamily Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory.  Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997.
    • and Spitzer, Leo.  "Gendered Translations: Claude Lanzmann's Shoah"  in Gendering War Talk , eds. Miriam Cooke and Angela Woollcott.  Princeton:
      Princeton UP, 1993.
  • Horowitz, Sara R.
    • "Memory and Testimony of Women Survivors of Nazi Genocide." Women of the Word: Jewish Women and Jewish Writing. Ed Judith Baskin. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1996
    • "The Pin with which to Stick Yourself': The Holocaust in Jewish American Women's Writing." Daughters of Valor: Contemporary Jewish American Women Writers Eds. Jay Halio and Ben Siegel. Newark: University of Delaware P, 1997.
  • Kaplan, Marion A. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany.  New York: Oxford UP, 1998.
  • Katz, Esther and Joan Ringelheim, eds. Proceedings of the Conference: WQmen Surviving the Holocaust New York: Institute for Research in History, 1983.
  • Kaufman, Debra.  "The Holocaust and Sociological Inquiry: A Feminist Analysis." Contemporary Jewry  17 (1996): 6-17.
  • Koonz, Claudia. Mothers in the Fatherland: Women. the Fam ily and Nazi Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
  • Kremer, Lillian.
    • Women's Holocaust Writing: Memory and Imagination. Lincoln: University of Nebraska P, 1999.
    • "The Holocaust and the Witnessing Imagination." Violence. Silence and Anger: Women"s Writing as Transmission. Ed. Deirdre Lashgari. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1995.
    • "HolocaustWrought Women: Portraits by Four American Writers." Studies in American Jewish Literature 11.2 (Fall 1992): 150-161.
    • "Holocaust Writing." The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States. New York: Oxford UP, 1994.
  • Lacey, Kate. "Driving the Message Home: Nazi Propaganda in the Private Sphere." Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency, and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century.  Ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey.  Durham: Duke UP, 1997.
  • Laska, Vera. Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust: The Voices of Eyewitness. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1983.
  • Linden, R. Ruth. Making Stories, Making Selves: Feminist Reflections on the Holocaust. Columbus: Ohio UP, 1993.
  • Lixl-Purcell, Andreas .  "Memoirs as History."  Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook  39 (1994)
  • Lorenz, Dagmar. Keepers of the Motherland: German Texts by Jewish Women Writers.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska P, 1997.
  • Magnus, Shulamith. " 'Out of the Ghetto': Integrating the Study of Jewish Women Into the Study of the 'The Jews'." Judaism 39. 1(1990): 28-36.
  • Martin, Elaine, ed. Gender, Patriarchy, and Fascism in the Third Reich: The Response of Women Writers.   Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1993.
  • Miller, J Love Carried Me Home:  Women surviving Auschwit. Deerfield Beach:  Simcha Press. 2000
    • It is the story of the first 16 women who gave their testimonies to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC.  It is a based on a dissertation which investigated the coping strategies of women during their internment in Auschwitz.
  • Milton, Sybil. "Women and the Holocaust: The Case of German and German Jewish Women." When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Eds. Renate Bridenthal, Atina Grossman, Marion Kaplan. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984.
  • Morrison, JackRavensbrück: Everyday Life in a Women's Concentration Camp.  Markus Wiener Publishers, 2000.
  • Ofer, Dalia and Lenore Weitzman. Women in the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale UP, 1998.
  • Owings, Alison. Frauen: Germany Women Recall the Third Reich.  New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1993.
  • Phayer, Michael and Eva Fleishner. Cries in the Night: Women Who Challenged the Holocaust Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1997.
  • Reading, Anna .  "Scarlet Lips in Belsen: Culture, Gender, and Ethnicity in the policies
    of the Holocaust." Media, Culture, and Society  21.4 (July 1999): 481-502.
  • Remmler, Karen. "Gender Identities and the Remembrance of the Holocaust" Women in German Yearbook 10 (1994): 167-187.
  • Ringelheim, Joan.
    • ''The Unethical and the Unspeakable: Women and the Holocaust." Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual I Ed. Alex Grobman. Chappaqua, N.Y. (1984): 69-87.
    • 'Thoughts about Women and the Holocaust!' Thinking the Unthinkable: Meanings of the Holocaust Ed. Roger S. Gottlieb. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1990.
    • "Women and the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 10. 4 (1985):74-161.
    • "Women and the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research." Jewish Women in Historical Perspective Ed. Judith R. Baskin. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1991.
    • "Women and the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research." Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust Eds. Carol Rittner and John K. Roth. New York: Paragon House, 1993.
  • Rittner, Carol and John K. Roth , eds. Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust. New York: Paragon House, 1993.
  • Rittner, Carol"Blind But Not Ignorant: German Women During the Holocaust." Peace, Indeed: Essays in Honor of Harry Cargas.  Ed. Zev Garber and Richard Libowitz.  Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998.
  • Ritvo, Roger A. and Diane M. Plotkin. Sisters in Sorrow: Voices of Care in the Holocaust College Station: Texas A & M UP, 1998.
  • Ronit, Lentin.   "Expected to Live: Women Shoah Survivors' Testimonials of Silence."  Women's Studies International Forum  23.6 (Nov-Dec.2000): 689.
  • Saidel, RochelleThe Jewish Women of Ravensbrück Concentration Camp.  Madison:  University of Wisconsin Press, 2004
  • Schoppmann, Claudia.
    • Days of Masquerade Life Stories of Lesbians during the Third Reich New York: Columbia UP, 1996.
    • "National Socialist Policies Toward Female Homosexuality."  Gender Relations in German History:  Power, Agency, and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey.  Durham: Duke UP, 1997.
  • Schwertfeger, Ruth. Women of Theresienstadt: Voices from a Concentration Camp Oxford: Berg, 1989.
  • Smith, Roger W. "Women and Genocide: Notes on an Unwritten History," Holocaust and Genocide Studies 8.3 (1994):315-334.
  • Stoltzfus, Nathan. Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germay.  New York:  W.W. Norton, 1996.
  • Summerfield, PennyReconstructing Women's Wartime Lives.  Manchester:  Manchester UP, 1998. 
  • Tec, Nechama. Resilience and Courage: Women, Men and the Holocaust.  New Haven:
    Yale UP, 2003.
    • "Sex Distinctions and Passing as Christians During the Holocaust."  East European Quarterly  18.1 (1984): 113-123.
  • Weitz, Margaret Collins. Sisters in the Resistance: How Women Fought to Free France, 1940-1945.  New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1995.