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Ms. Susan Miller, who arrived as a refugee in Shanghai in 1939 added the following information about visa policy to Shanghai, which was generally considered an "open city" where no visas were needed.
"When we left Vienna in January, 1939 no visa to Shanghai was required. Only after the Japanese occupation in 1940 was a visa needed I have such certificates asking such permission for entry into the Japanese-occupied part of the International settlement of Shanghai, north of Soochow (Suzhou) creek for my aunt and grandmother datd April 18,1940 but unfortunately by then it was too late, Also, there was a lot of money required which we did not have. Consequently my family was deported to Poland Grandmother was 85 at the time) and perished there. Ex-Shanghaiers in Canada da are mostly from Austria, coming here as visititors illegally at the time, because even in 1949 long after the war,we had no place to go except to Israel. Canada had a motto: "None is too many" For the USA one had to have relatives willing to make certain you didn't go on welfare or fit into the Quota system at the time (note: based on country of origin according to a percentage of the 1890 US Census) . I remember Werner Michael Blumenthal (Blumenthal became Secretary of the Treasury during the administration of President Carter) from school. Without relatives or sponsors with an avidavit you could not enter the USA.
There also is a website for ex-Shanghaiers. Another is www.rickshaw.org.
I was 12 yrs old when I came to Shanghai."
Susan Muller, Smuller260@aol.com