University of Minnesota
Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies



The headline in The New York Times of July 13, 1919 read, "Turkey Condemns War Leaders: Court Martial Gives Death Sentence to Enver Pasha, Talaat Bey and Djemel Pasha." However, at the end of World War I, the convicted had already fled Turkey and the verdicts could not be carried out. Despite promises by the British, French, American and other governments, the perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide were not brought to justice. Finally, during the establishment of the present Republic of Turkey (191923), Armenians who had optimistically returned to their homes after the 1918 Armistice, faced further massacres, forcing them to emigrate by the thousands.

Genocide is a crime which has been repeated a number of times in the twentieth century, and many believe that the failure to punish its organizers set a precedent which encouraged new rampages.


Above: Armenian remains were uncovered in mass graves along the desert roads of Der el Zor, 1920.  After the Armistice, Armenians returning to their home, identify burial pits to photographer.