University of Minnesota
Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies


Visualizing Otherness I - Set 3

Visualizing Otherness: Nazi and other use of visual representation - Continued

(click on image to enlarge).

This page continues with more examples of how Jews were depicted in some aspects of popular culture as well as propagandistic works that rejected Jewish equality and assimilation. Many of these works carry the following themes:

  • ear of marriage and sexual relations with Jews
  • Jews as carriers of disease
  • Jews as Bolsheviks/Communists, responsible for the Russian  Revolution of 1917 and Chaos
germany - election poster

"Germany." Artist signed A. H. Printed on back: "Election poster for Reichstag election, 1920."

This image carried the idea of the pure Aryan (i.e. German, Scandinavian woman) marrying a stereotypical Jew. The name "Germany" appears at the bottom ("Deutschland") indicating the future of Germany if such relationships with the outsider continues. Before the figures is a coffin--symbolizing the decline of the white race. Two swastikas on the upper right suggest perhaps a pun of the early interpretation of the Swastika, which was "good luck;" ironically, this later became the symbol of NSDAP, the Nazi party.

czech postcard

Czech Postcard Showing Outsiders, circa 1910.

Different sides of life. Artist signed. This is a late issue of the original image. Violin, music, pipe, fountain pen, sword, dancing, Jewish.
The images are partially about Jews, but also other outsiders in Austro-Hungarian society in this period: Jews, Roma and Sinti (Gyspies), high brow intellectuals, and more traditional people of the Carpathian Mountain area.

german postcard

Anti-Semitic Judaica Business German Postcard

"The serpent of the  big shareholders' companies (with anonymous ownership)is rising. Hercules goes courageously into action against them ..." This anti-Semitic image is based on mythology and is repeated from the Christian icon of St. George and the Dragon, as well as Eve and the Serpent. In the Medieval period, Jews were identified with the Devil, which is part of this World War II iconography as propaganda.

jews at the party postcard

Jews at the Party Anti-Semitic Postcard

"And like a man in Vienna and Berlin he is pursued." Published by Punsch, Munich, Germany. This is a late issue of the original image (circa 1910). The image is that of a newly emancipated Jewish male carousing with women at a party, a drummer at the right suggesting the relentless of Jewish desires for absorption in the mainstream of German life.

rabbi postcard

Jewish Rabbi Judaica Anti-Semitic Postcard

"The Jews, bringers of our misfortune." Mark of the N.S.D.A.P. [Nazi party]. Third Reich, World War II, WW2, WWII. This is a late issue of the original image (circa 1938).

american flyer

Judaica,anti-Semitic flier, US, early forties

An anti-Semitic flier distributed in rural areas of Midwest in early forties, very offensive, an open letter to Rabbi Gordon that anchored a radio program, he asks the Rabbi: "… Why do you condemn Hitler..for purging their nations of Jews? Have you talked to Germans who were persecuted by the Jews in control in Germany before Hitler", later he blasts the Jews for what they include in their Yom Kippur prayers, fine condition.

The hate speech in this flier, which can be read on the screen, mirrors anti-Semitic rhetoric of today from neo-Nazis, Aryan churches and other anti-Semitic groups.

pre-1914 postcard

American anti-Semitic postcard, pre-1914 suggesting Jews are in the business of picking up junk and then converting into something of assumed value that is sold to unsuspecting non-Jews. This type of imagery was also used by the Nazis in the 1941 propaganda film, "The Eternal Jew."

1901 american or british postcard

American or British postcard, circa 1901 showing Jew running from blazing building. "Faule Fishe" is a pun on the apparent arson fire started by the Jew named Fishe.

booklet cover

Cover of booklet, "The Jews in the Netherlands," issued after the occupation of Holland in 1941. Note the word "Joden" is written in Hebraicized script, which was also used on Yellow identification stars of Jwish victims.

jews in diamond trade

From the same booklet, showing Jews in the diamond trade.

impoverished jew

From the same booklet, showing stereotypical facial features of impoverished Jew.

1914 broadside

1914 postcard

1914 broadside showing postcard of the border between the Germany Empire, Austria-Hungary and Russian Empire. The image is that of two Jews, depicted in the "Director-coach" of the Krakow-Myslowitz Railroad.

Text of speech by Major General Mosley

text of 1939 Maj. Gen. Mosley speech

Text of speech by Major General Mosley, US Army in Philadelphia, March, 1939, which alleged "Jewish control of the American government." Mosley was known as a eugenicist, who frequently spoke out about the dangers of cross-breeding of the races in American society. His speeches often lashed out against all forms of degeneracy, including Jews, drifters, dope fiends and other degenerates. Moseley also raised fears about "well financed minorities" who can undermine democracy in America.

Anti-semitism grew in the United States during the 1930s as President Roosevelt was sometimes called "President Rosenstein," alleging he was a Jew (which he was not), while the "New Deal" was "The Jew Deal" because it expanded government and welfare in order to deal with the Great Depression. For information on anti-Semitism in the US Army, see Joseph W. Bendersky, THE JEWISH THREAT: ANTI-SEMITIC POLITICS OF THE US ARMY (Basic Books, 2000)