University of Minnesota
Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies


  • Male and Female Jews, "half-breeds"

    Male and Female Jews, "half-breeds"

    Male and Female Jews, "half-breeds"

    Express letter by the Reich Minister' of the Interior on the collection of mentally ill Jews to be transported to the Giessen mental hospital, 30th August 1940

    The Jewish people in Sanatoriums and Nursing Homes were considered to be "of minor racial value" and "hereditarily diseased". Approximately 1,000 Jewish inmates of the institution were already killed under the "T-4 Operation". In summer 1940, the government of the Reich decided to. kill the remaining Jewish inmates of the institution collectively - without the superficial expertise granted to other "euthanasia" victims. The Jewish patients were brought together to "collecting institutions" (in Hesse: Giessen and Heppenheim) and then transferred after a short time to an unknown destination. Officially, the authorities indicated the Reich institution Cholm near by Lublin, however, at that time, the institution whose Polish patients had been shot in January 1940, no longer existed. We know, however, that some of the Jewish patients were gassed in the killing institution of Brandenburg.

    Giessen mental hospital, 1936

    On 25th September 1940, 106 Jewish inmates originating from the North-Hessian institutions were transferred to the "collecting institution" of Giessen, from where they went on to be transferred, together with 20 male and female patients of this institution, on 1st October 1940. The Giessen mental hospital, opened in 1911, cared for almost 500 male and female patients. In the forties, the institution included, among other things, a "neurological and psychiatric observing-station" of the SS.

    News regarding the transfer of the daughter Franziska "Sara" M. from Merxhausen to Giessen, 25th September 1940

    Addressee "moved to unknown location".

    transfer notice

    transfer notice

    Reception book of the Giessen mental hospital, September 1940

    Greater Hesse Lunatic Asylum Heppenheim, no date

    The Heppenheim mental hospital was the second Hessian collecting institution for Jewish patients. In addition to the inmates from Hessian institutions (especially from the Philippshospital near Goddelau) Jewish people from Baden were also collected here, on the 1st February 1941. All Jewish patients were called by the "Gemeinn├╝tzige Transportgesellschaft" on 4th February 1941. The institution founded in the year 1866, was completely emptied of patients in the following months (most of them were transferred to "interim institutions'); the institution was then used as a "reserve war hospital, department prisoners of war" pursuant to an agreement between the state government in Darmstadt and the army administration. In 1943, an "alternate hospital was added to the institution.

    Note regarding the death of the sister Una "Sara" H. in the lunatic asylum Chelm from cerebra-spinal meningitis and request to send the personal clothes, 10th April 1941

    In February 1941,a total of 79 Jewish patients were transported from the Philippshospital. Place and way of their killing are unknown.

    Establishment of an educational home for half-breeds in Hadamar in the year 1943, 24th June 1945

    In May 1943, on order of the Reich Minister of the Interior, an "educational home for Jewish cross-breeds of first degree" was established in the Hadamar mental hospital. Until 1944, children from "half-breeds" under age from the whole Reich were taken to this "educational home", for whom a public welfare education had been decreed. "Neglect" of these children had often been a consequence of the Jew-baiting that had taken a parent away from them. In the beginning, Hadamar had an own children's ward, since August 1943, the boys and girls stayed in the general wards of the hospital. Until their assassination, the children were given lessons by Alfons Klein, head of the mental hospital. 34 from 39 children were murdered in Hadamar; five were released or transferred.

    IV 24
    The sons were killed: The Heinemann brothers
    Newspaper article with photo
    Brounschweiger Zeitung, Edition Helmstedt dated 7th November 1989, p. 13